Vizzow Nice – Admito ( Cover ) [ WB Records ] [ 2K17 ]

 

 

Artist : Vizzow Nice
Title : Admito ( Cover )
Genre : R&B Soul
Studio : WB Records
Year : 2017

 

One Response to Vizzow Nice – Admito ( Cover ) [ WB Records ] [ 2K17 ]

  1. Tick-borne pathogens remain an important cause of disease among canine populations world-wide.
    Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi is the most common and economically important tick-borne disease
    in South Africa[1], where the known vector is Haemaphysalis elliptica (formerly lumped with H.
    leachi)[2]. Presence in Africa of the less virulent Babesia vogeli, transmitted by Rhipicephalus
    sanguineus, was confirmed in 2004[3]. Although H.
    leachi (sensu lato) is a ubiquitous tick of tropical and southern Africa[2,4], the
    published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis in Africa is surprisingly
    meagre. Apart from South Africa, where the disease has been studied intensively, and Nigeria, the only published references traced
    were from Zimbabwe[5], Zambia[6,7], the Sudan[8]
    and the Cape Verde islands[9].

    In Nigeria, canine babesiosis was first mentioned
    in an annual report of the Veterinary Department in 1926[10].
    The disease occurred more frequently in imported dogs, while puppies born in the
    country, especially those of indigenous breeds, developed the disease in a milder form and usually
    recovered. This situation has persisted over many years[11].
    In a survey of 400 dogs sampled randomly from many parts of Nigeria, only eight dogs (2.3%) were positive for B.
    rossi, while a single dog was positive for B.
    vogeli[12]. Blood smears made from 500 dogs presented to veterinary clinics in Ibadan, Oyo
    State, were examined microscopically; 53 (26.0%) were found
    to be infected with B. canis (sensu lato), while 41 (20.2%) were
    infected with B. gibsoni[13]. Babesia canis (sensu lato) was reported
    from Zaria, Kaduna State[14,15]. A low prevalence (2.8%) of
    B. canis (sensu lato) infection was found in a blood-smear-based survey among slaughtered dogs in Maiduguri,
    Borno State[16]. Using molecular detection and characterisation on blood specimens of 181 dogs presented
    to veterinary hospitals in four states, B. rossi was
    detected in 2/17 dogs (11.8%) in Rivers State, while in Plateau State it was found in 6/41 (14.6%) dogs in Jos North and in 4/64 (4.8%) dogs in Jos South[17].
    A single dog in Kaduna state was found to be positive for
    B. vogeli[17]. Interestingly, B. canis (sensu stricto) and
    B. rossi co-infection was found in a dog that had never left Vom, Plateau State[18].
    This stimulated renewed interest in the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in Africa, as it was the
    first confirmation of the occurrence of B.
    canis in a geographical region were Dermacentor reticulatus, the only confirmed vector of B.
    canis, does not occur[18].

    Clinical signs of canine babesiosis always include fever
    and splenomegaly, while inappetence, weakness, lethargy, generalised lymphadenopathy, anaemia and haemoglobinuria due to erythrolysis may also
    occur[19]. In some cases infection remains sub-clinical[20].
    The clinical manifestation of B. rossi infection is classified as either
    uncomplicated or complicated[21,22]. It is regarded as uncomplicated if the
    clinical signs can be attributed solely to mild or moderate
    anaemia[21]. On the other hand, complicated cases are those where there is evidence of non-solid-organ failure
    characterised by severe anaemia and haemoconcentration or organ dysfunction/failure[22].
    The mechanisms resulting in B. rossi being associated with such diverse clinical
    manifestations remain unknown. One possibility is that it may be due to genotypic differences among B.
    rossi strains, as has been suggested for B. canis (sensu stricto)[23].
    A polymorphic phosphoprotein localised on the cytoplasmic surface of B.
    rossi-infected erythrocytes has been named Babesia rossi erythrocyte membrane antigen 1 (BrEMA1)[19].
    BrEMA1 genes of various laboratory strains code
    for polymorphic proteins that contain various numbers
    of repetitive hexapeptide motifs[19]. The exact function of
    this gene is unknown, but it is hypothesised that it may
    be related to virulence[19].

    The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise
    tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital
    in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, using molecular techniques
    (Polymerase Chain Reaction and Reverse Line Blot).

    In B. rossi-positive specimens,we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA 1 gene occurred and to
    compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly,
    we wished to identify the tick species that were present on the sampled dogs.

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